Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Lithuania
The Concept of Cultural Crisis in Osvald Spengler‘s philosophy
The article analizes the insights of the famous German philosopher. Osvald Spengler, on the evolution of civilization and the causes of cultural crisis. In the first part and on the basis of a disjunction between culture and civilization, the article demonstrates that in Spengler‘s cultural studies, the culture presents vital trends of the evoliution of a society: development, freedom of the personality, the period of a creative improvement and prosperity; civilization as the last phase of culture marks the death and stagnation time, and at the same time expresses a cultural crisis as a recession of the authentic creation, finally determinining the end of culture. The second part focuses on the relationships between cities and villages; the analysis highlights the opposition between civilization and cultural development. The study examines Spengler‘s position on the causes of culture crisis. It shows that in a rural environment the vital cultural spirit of individuality, intuition, naturality, freedom, tradition, values and religiosity is flourishing. City, megapolis, which is a product of civilization, conversely consolidates the urban environment. That environment determines the mass cultural spread, the devaluation of traditional values, consumerism, pragmatism, the fashion cult and the sketchy standards of beauty. Here destructively runs the cultural evolution. Cultural evolution destroys authentic creativity and cultural values.
Key Words: the cyclic theory of culture, cultural crisis, creation, culture, civilization, city, village.